Phil. of Religion

Philosophy of Religion

The Philosophy of Religion in General

  • The Video Timeline Project of St John's Nottingham has a collection of excellent videos in which philosophers and theologians discuss issues in the philosophy of religion (albeit with a general focus on, and sympathy for, Christianity).
  • This podcast from The Partially Examined Life is about J.L. Mackie’s The Miracle of Theism: Arguments For and Against the Existence of God (1983). The ontological, cosmological, and teleological arguments for God'd existence are discussed. This further podcast critiques selections from various arch-atheists (Sam Harris, Richard Dawkins, Christopher Hitchens, and Daniel C. Dennett).
  • Resources:
    • Infidels.org has a library on Religion, theism, Agnosticism, Naturalism, Skepticism, and Secularism, divided into three sections; the Kiosk containing general-interest easily read articles, the Modern section with scholarly material written after 1970, and the Historical section with pre-1970 material.
    • Philosophyofreligion.info contains brief summaries of key arguments and concepts in the philosophy of religion.

Arguments for Theism

Cosmological Arguments
  • The SEP entries on cosmological arguments and on cosmology and theology are here and here
  • Luke Muelhauser's (incomplete) philosophy of religion bibliography has a (complete) section on cosmological arguments here
  • Infidels.org has a section on cosmological arguments here
  • The philpapers section on cosmological arguments is here
  • These wiphi clips, by Timothy Yenter (University of Mississippi), are about two versions of the 'Cosmological Argument' for the existence of God, namely the 'Beginnings Argument' and the 'Modal Argument'. The first clip distinguishes the two versions of the argument, and then focuses on the Beginnings Argument. The second is about the Modal Argument.

  • The philosopher William Lane Craig propounds the "Kalam" version of the cosmological argument in the next clip, from the "Video Timeline" project of St John's College, Nottingham:
  • William Lane Craig and the Oxford philosopher, Peter Millican, debate the plausibility of the Kalam cosmological argument in the next pair of clips:
  • This minute physics video gives a brief scientific take on the question as to where the universe came from:
  • Leibnezian cosmological argument
  • Modal, Thomistic?
  • Inductive: Swinburne?
Design Arguments
  • The IEP's entry on Design Arguments for the Existence of God is here.
  • Infidels.org has a section containing many articles on the fine-tuning argument and the biological design argument here
  • In the next two videos, Robin Collins, professor of philosophy at Messiah College, argues that the fine-tuning of the universe is evidence consistent with the existence of an intelligent creator:
Pascal's Wager and other Pragmatic Arguments for Theism
  • The section of Pascal’s Pense├ęs in which the argument originally appears [pdf]

  • Infidels.org on Pascal's Wager
  • The IEP's entry is here.
  • The SEP's entry on Pascal's wager is here
  • The SEP's entry on other pragmatic arguments is here.
  • The philpapers category for pragmatic arguments is here
  • This introduction/ or this FAQ to Decision theory may be helpful in working through pragmatic arguments, especially more modern treatments. However, both discuss topics beyond the scope required for pragmatic arguments for theism.
Ontological Arguments
  • The IEP has an entry on Anselm's ontological argument here and a further short discussion of Descartes' version of the argument here.
  • Infidels.org on Ontological Arguments
  • http://philpapers.org/browse/ontological-arguments-for-theism
  • Godel’s ontological argument http://www.stats.uwaterloo.ca/~cgsmall/ontology.html
  • http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ontological-arguments/
  • Descartes http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/descartes-ontological/
  • Anselms http://www.princeton.edu/~grosen/puc/phi203/ontological.html
  • Plantinga's?
  • Hartshorne's and Maydole's?
Moral Arguments
  • The SEP entry on moral arguments for theism is here
  • Philosophyofreligion.info has brief summaries of three major moral arguments here
  • The philpapers entry on moral arguments for theism is here.
  • Infidels.org's library has a section on moral arguments here
Epistemological Arguments
Arguments from Experience
Transcendental Argument
Historical Arguments


  • Nick Spencer, author of Darwin and God, discusses Darwin's faith and thought in the following video from the "Video Timeline" project of St John's College, Nottingham.


  • The SEP's entry on miracles is here. The IEP's is here.
  • Infidels.org has a section on the Argument from Miracles here
  • In the following clip Tim Hull of St Johns, Nottingham, discusses the history of the debate of miracles:
  • Less seriously. This is a Mitchell and Webb skit in which God's non-existence is proved by occurrence of a miracle.


  • The IEP's entry is here.

Arguments against Theism

The Problem of Evil
  • Evidential vs Logical Arguments:
  • Logical
    • Mackie
    • Hanna
    • Others
  • Evidential
    • Rowe's (original)
    • Draper's
    • Rowe's Bayesian
  • In this wiphi clip, Sally Haslanger (Professor of Philosophy at MIT) spells out the argument from evil against the existence of God. "Along the way, she distinguishes different ways in which people believe that God exists, and discusses what's bad about having contradictory beliefs."
  • The following trilogy of wiphi clips, by Greg Ganssle of Yale, is also about the argument from evil. In part 1 "Greg lays out a classic argument that God does not exist, called ‘The Problem of Evil’. He distinguishes two versions of that argument, which are sometimes called ‘the deductive’ and ‘the evidential’ version. He goes into some details on the deductive version." In part 2, "Greg gives a response to the deductive version of the Problem of Evil on behalf of someone who believes that God exists. In thinking about this response, we need to think about whether God can make contradictions true, and whether God can have good reasons for allowing bad things to happen." And in part 3, "Greg considers the evidential version of the Problem of Evil, and gives a response on behalf of someone who believes that God exists. This involves considering whether God might have a good reason to allow bad things to happen."
  • Keith Ward, Richard Bauckham and Tom Wright provide theist responses to the problem of evil in the next two clips, from the "Video Timeline" project of St John's College, Nottingham.
  • In the following podcast (audio only) from the Philosopher's Zone, Steven Nadler (of the University of Wisconsin) discusses Leibniz, Malebrance, and Arnauld on theodicy and the problem of evil:

Historical/Historicity Arguments
  • Historical Reliability of the Bible
  • Jesus - failed prophet, myth, etc
  • (others? inefficiency of evolution?)
Incompatibilism/Incoherency Arguments
  • Smith’s argument for the impossibility of a divine cause
  • Martin: omnibenevolence vs. omniscience
  • Rachels’ argument for the impossibility of worship-worthiness
  • Perfection vs. creation
  • Immutability vs. creation
  • Immutability vs. omniscience
  • Immutability vs. omnibenevolence
  • Transcendence vs. omnipresence
  • Transcendence vs. personhood
  • Nonphysical vs. personhood
  • Omnipresence vs. personhood
  • Omniscience vs. freedom
  • Justice vs. mercy
  • The impossibility of omnipotence
  • The impossibility of omnibenevolence
  • The impossibility of omniscience
  • The Impossibility of libertarian free will (even for God)
Moral Arguments
  • Bradley's
  • Smith's
  • Maitzen's
Divine Hiddenness
  • Ineffectiveness of prayer
  • Religious Diversity and inconsisten revelations
  • Arguments from nonbelief (e.g, Drange)

Classical Theism

  • The SEP has these entries:
  • The IEP has these entries:
  • Relevant Philpapers and Mindpapers sections include:

Science and Religion

  • The SEP has these entries:
  • The IEP has these entries:
  • Relevant Philpapers and Mindpapers sections include:

Atheism and Agnosticism

  • The SEP has these entries:
  • The IEP has these entries:
  • Relevant Philpapers and Mindpapers sections include:

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