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Late Modern

Late Modern Philosophy

Late Modern Philosophy in General

  • Encyclopedia entries:
    • 17th and 18th Century Theories of Emotions: SEP
    • 17th Century Theories of Substance: IEP
    • 18th Century German Philosophy Prior to Kant: SEP
    • American Philosophy: IEP
    • Atomism from the 17th to the 20th Century: SEP
    • Cambridge Platonists: SEP
    • Contemporary Metaphilosophy: IEP
    • English Deism: IEP
    • German Idealism: IEP
    • Neo-Stoicism: IEP
    • Renaissance Philosophy: IEP
    • Renaissance Humanism: IEP
    • Russian Philosophy: IEP
    • Scottish Philosophy in the 18th Century: SEP
    • Scottish Philosophy in the 19th Century: SEP
  • Early Modern Texts houses translations, by Jonathan Bennett, of many early modern works into intelligible modern English.

John Stuart Mill (1806–1873)

  • Open access copies of Mill's major works include:
  • Encyclopaedia entries:
    • Mill: SEP & IEP
    • Mill's Ethics: IEP
    • Mill's Moral and Political Philosophy: SEP
    • The History of Utilitarianism: SEP
  • The Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy's entry on Mill is here.
  • Mill Podcasts:
    • Philosophy Bites: Richard Reeves, author of a recent biography of Mill, discusses Mill's On Liberty (1859), the classic defence of liberalism.
    • Philosophy Bites: Janet Radcliffe Richards examines questions about human nature, focusing on Mill's important book The Subjection of Women.
    • Philosophy Bites: Roger Crisp , author of an acclaimed book on Mill, explains Mill's utilitarian ethical theory.
    • In Our Time: Melvyn Bragg discusses Mill with A C Grayling (University of London), Janet Radcliffe Richards (University College London) and Alan Ryan (Oxford).
    • The Partially Examined Life: on Mill's Utilitarianism, along with Bentham and Singer.
    • Nigel Warburton: a podcast chapter from Warburton's Philosophy: The Classics on Mill's Utilitarianism.
    • Nigel Warburton: a podcast chapter from Warburton's Philosophy: The Classics on Mill's On Liberty. It summarises some of the main themes and outline some criticisms.

Pragmatism

  • Open access copies of major works of the Pragmatists include:
    • On a New List of Categories (Peirce, 1868): here
    • The Fixation of Belief (Peirce, 1877): here
    • How to Make Our Ideas Clear (Peirce, 1878): here or here (extracts)
    • The Principles of Psychology (William James, 1890): here.
    • The Will to Believe, and Other Essays in Popular Philosophy (William James, 1897): here.
    • The Varieties of Religious Experience (William James, 1902): here.
    • What Pragmatism Means (William James, 1906): here
    • Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking (William James, 1907): here or here
    • A Pluralistic Universe (William James, 1909): here.
    • The Meaning of Truth (William James, 1909): here.
    • Essays in Radical Empiricism (William James, 1912): here.
    • Chapter 2 of The Quest for Certainty (John Dewey, 1929): here.
    • Introduction to Consequences of Pragmatism (Richard Rorty, 1982): here.
  • Encyclopaedia entries:
    • Pragmatism: SEP & IEP
    • Addams, Jane (1860—1935): IEP
    • Lewis, Clarence Irving (1883—1964): SEP & IEP
    • Dewey, John (1859—1952): IEP
    • Dewey's Aesthetics: SEP
    • Dewey's Moral Philosophy: SEP
    • Dewey's Political Philosophy: SEP
    • James, William (1842—1910): SEP & IEP
    • Mead, George Herbert (1863—1931): IEP
    • Peirce, Charles Sanders (1839-1914): SEP & IEP
    • Peirce: Pragmatism: IEP
    • Peirce: Architectonic Philosophy: IEP
    • Peirce's Logic: SEP
    • Peirce's Theory of Signs: SEP
    • Pragmatic Arguments and Belief in God: SEP
    • Pragmatist Feminism: SEP & IEP
    • Nicholas Rescher (1928—): IEP
  • Useful links on Pragmatism:
  • Pragmatism podcasts:
    • In Our Time: Melvyn Bragg discusses the American philosophy of pragmatism with A C Grayling (University of London), Julian Baggini, and Miranda Fricker (University of London).
    • In Our Time: Melvyn Bragg discusses James' The Varieties of Religious Experience with Jonathan Ree, John Haldane (St Andrews) and Gwen Griffith-Dickson (Gresham College).
    • The Partially Examined Life: on Pragmatism by William James and The Fixation of Belief and How to Make Our Ideas Clear by Charles Sanders Peirce.
    • The Partially Examined Life: on James’s The Will to Believe and continuing the discussion from the above episode on James’s conception of truth as described in his books Pragmatism and The Meaning of Truth.

Gottlob Frege (1848–1925)

  • Open access copies of Frege's major works include:
    • On Sense and Reference (1892): here or here.
    • The Thought: a Logical Inquiry (1956): here.
    • The Foundations of Arithmetic (Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik) (1884): here.
    • Begriffsschrift (1892): here, or here.
  • Encyclopaedia entries:
    • Frege: SEP & IEP
    • Frege and the Philosophy of Language: IEP
    • The Frege-Hilbert Controversy: SEP
    • Frege's Theorem and Foundations for Arithmetic: SEP
  • Frege podcasts:
    • Philosophy Bites: Frege expert Michael Dummett explains why Frege is so important for philosophy.
    • The Partially Examined Life: on Frege's logic of language, as developed in "Sense and Reference", "Concept and Object" and "The Thought".

Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889–1951)

  • Open access versions of Wittgenstein's works include:
    • Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (1921): here, here, here, or here.
    • Philosophical Investigations (1953): The first 100 remarks, along with commentary by Lois Shawver, are here.
    • The Blue Book (1958): here.
    • On Certainty (1969): here.
    • Lectures on Philosophy (1932-1933): here.
  • Encyclopaedia entries:
    • Wittgenstein: SEP & IEP
    • Wittgenstein's Aesthetics: SEP
    • Wittgenstein's Later Philosophy of Mathematics: IEP
    • Wittgenstein's Logical Atomism: SEP
    • Wittgenstein's Philosophy of Mathematics: SEP
    • Wittgenstein's Private Language Argument: SEP
  • Useful links and resources:
    • Arnswald, U. (2009) In Search of Meaning: Ludwig Wittgenstein on Ethics, Mysticism and Religion), KIT Scientific Publishing, is a book available online here.
  • Wittgenstein podcasts:
    • In Our Time: Melvyn Bragg discusses Wittgenstein's life and philosophy with Ray Tallis (Manchester), Ray Monk (Southampton) and Marie McGinn ( York).
    • In Our Time: Melvyn Bragg discusses Ordinary Language Philosophy, a school of thought with its roots in the work of Ludwig Wittgenstein. Bragg's guests are Stephen Mulhall (Oxford), Ray Monk (Southampton) and Julia Tanney (Kent).
    • Philosophy Bites: Barry Smith, a Wittgenstein expert from Birkbeck College, discusses Wittgenstein's conception of philosophy.
    • The Partially Examined Life and Part 2: these two podcasts are about Wittgenstein's Tractatus.
    • The Partially Examined Life and Part 2: these two are about the Philosophical Investigations. (The first is about linguistic meaning and language games, while the second moves on to the private language argument.)
  • Stephen Mullhall introduces Wittgenstein's philosophy in the following pair of clips:
  • Philosopher John Searle, of Berkeley, discusses Wittgenstein in the following clip. (It is part 1 of a 3 part series: here are part 2 and part 3.)
  • Many snippets from Derek Jarman's wonderful film, Wittgenstein, can be found on YouTube, including these:
  • Wittgenstein's philosophy of religion is the focus of the following episode from the 1984 BBC "Sea of Faith" Documentary (in two clips):

Bertrand Russell (1872–1970)