-->

Ancient

Ancient and Medieval Philosophy

Ancient Philosophy in General

  • Encyclopaedia entries:
    • Ancient Atomism: SEP
    • Ancient Ethical Theory: SEP
    • Ancient Greek Philosophy: IEP
    • Ancient Greek Skepticism: IEP
    • Ancient Logic: SEP
    • Ancient Political Philosophy: SEP
    • Ancient Skepticism: SEP
    • Ancient Theories of Soul: SEP
    • Doxography of Ancient Philosophy: SEP
    • Intentionality in Ancient Philosophy: SEP
  • The Internet Classics Archive is a large open-access repository of classical literature (referenced heavily below).

Medieval Philosophy in General

  • Encyclopaedia entries:
    • Medieval Philosophy: SEP
    • Medieval Mereology: SEP
    • Medieval Political Philosophy: SEP
    • The Medieval Problem of Universals: SEP
    • Medieval Semiotics: SEP
    • Medieval Skepticism: SEP
    • Medieval Theories of Aesthetics: IEP
    • Medieval Theories of Analogy: SEP
    • Medieval Theories of Causation: SEP
    • Medieval Theories of Conscience: SEP
    • Medieval Theories of Demonstration: SEP
    • Medieval Theories of Free Will: IEP
    • Medieval Theories of Future Contingents: SEP
    • Medieval Theories of Haecceity: SEP
    • Medieval Theories of Modality: SEP
    • Medieval Theories of Obligationes: SEP
    • Medieval Theories of Practical Reason: SEP & IEP
    • Medieval Theories of Relations: SEP
    • Medieval Theories of Singular Terms: SEP
    • Medieval Theories of the Syllogism: SEP
    • Medieval Theories: Properties of Terms: SEP
    • Mental Representation in Medieval Philosophy: SEP
    • Literary Forms of Medieval Philosophy: SEP
  • The Proceedings of the Society for Medieval Logic and Metaphysics is an open-access journal.

The Pre-Socratics

  • Encyclopaedia entries:
    • Protagoras: IEP
    • Pythagoras: SEP & IEP
    • Pythagoreanism: SEP
    • The Sophists: SEP & IEP
    • Thales of Miletus: IEP
    • Thrasymachus: IEP
    • Xenophanes: SEP & IEP
    • Zeno of Elea: SEP
    • Zeno's Paradoxes: SEP
    • Diels-Kranz Numbering System: IEP
  • The PhilPapers section on the Pre-Socratics is here.
  • Podcasts:
    • Peter Adamson: 14 podcasts from Peter Adamson (Kings' College London) dealing with the Pre-Socratics.
    • In Our Time: Melvyn Bragg discusses Heraclitus with Angie Hobbs (Warwick), Peter Adamson (King's College London) and James Warren (Cambridge).
    • In Our Time: Melvyn Bragg discusses Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans with Serafina Cuomo (University of London), John O'Connor (St Andrews) and Ian Stewart(Warwick).
    • PEL: Eva Brann discusses her book The Logos of Heraclitus.
  • A remarkably young Carl Sagan delivers a quick introduction to some of major Pre-Socratics -- Thales, Anaximander, Democritus, Empedocles, Anaxagoras and Pythagoras -- in the following pair of clips (drawn from episode 7 of the "Cosmos" series):
  • Richard Brown (City University of New York) introduces some of the Pre-Socratics (Anaximander, Parmenides, Heraclitus, Zeno and Democritus) in the following lecture (1 hour):

Plato (429–347 BCE)

  • Open access translations of Plato's dialogues include:
  • Bernard Suzzanne maintains this comprehensive index to online copies of Plato's dialogues.
  • Encyclopaedia entries:
    • Plato: SEP & IEP
    • Socrates: SEP
    • Plato's Ethics: An Overview: SEP
    • Plato's Shorter Ethical Works: SEP
    • Plato's Ethics and Politics in The Republic: SEP
    • Plato: Political Philosophy: IEP
    • Plato on Utopia: SEP
    • Plato on Friendship and Eros: SEP
    • Plato's Aesthetics: SEP
    • Plato on Rhetoric and Poetry: SEP
    • Method and Metaphysics in Plato's Sophist and Statesman: SEP
    • Plato's Middle Period Metaphysics and Epistemology: SEP
    • Plato: Organicism: IEP
    • Plato's Myths: SEP
    • Plato: The Academy: IEP
    • Plato on Knowledge in the Theaetetus: SEP
    • Plato's Cratylus: SEP
    • Plato's Parmenides: SEP
    • Plato: Phaedo: IEP
    • Plato: The Republic: IEP
    • Plato's Timaeus: SEP
    • Plato: Theaetetus: IEP
  • Podcasts
    • Peter Adamson: 19 podcasts dealing with many elements of the Plato's philosophy.
    • In Our Time: Melvyn Bragg discusses Gorgias, Plato and rhetoric with Angie Hobbs (Warwick), Thomas Healy (University of London) and Ceri Sullivan (University of Wales).
    • In Our Time: Melvyn Bragg discusses Socrates with Angie Hobbs, David Sedley (Cambridge) and Paul Millett (Cambridge).
    • PEL and Part 2: on Plato's Apology.
    • PEL: on Plato's theory of knowledge, as presented in Theaetetus and the Meno.
    • PEL: on Plato's theory of justice as presented in The Republic.
    • PEL: on Plato's account of ethics and religion, as presented in Euthyphro.
    • PEL: on Plato's Gorgias and rhetoric versus philosophy.
  • The following clip is a beautiful claymation rendering of Plato's allegory of the cave, made by Michael Ramsey and John Grigsby:
  • Alain de Botton introduces Socrates, his life and his views on the importance of challenging lazy assumptions, in the following episode from his documentary series, "Philosophy: A Guide to Happiness".
  • In the next pair of videos (1hr 13mins, and 1hr 8mins) , Richard Brown (City University of New York) introduces Socrates, the Socratic Turn and Plato:
  • Less seriously. S Peter Davis subjects Plato to his ribald 3-minute treatment in the next clip:

Aristotle (384–322 BCE)

  • Open access translations of Aristotle's works include:
  • Encyclopaedia entries:
    • Aristotle: SEP & IEP
    • Aristotle's Logic: SEP & IEP
    • Aristotle's Ethics: SEP & IEP
    • Aristotle's Biology: SEP & IEP
    • Aristotle's Political theory: SEP & IEP
    • Aristotle's Metaphysics: SEP
    • Aristotle: Metaphysics: IEP
    • Aristotle's Psychology: SEP
    • Aristotle's Natural Philosophy: SEP
    • Aristotle: Poetics: IEP
    • Aristotle's Rhetoric: SEP
    • Aristotle's Categories: SEP
    • Aristotle and Mathematics: SEP
    • Aristotle on Causality: SEP
    • Aristotle on Non-contradiction: SEP
    • Aristotle: Motion and its Place in Nature: IEP
  • Podcasts:
    • Peter Adamson: 18 podcasts dealing with many different aspects of Aristotle philosophy.
    • In Our Time: Melvyn Bragg discusses Aristotle's Poetics with Angie Hobbs (Warwick), Nick Lowe (University of London) and Stephen Halliwell (St Andrews).
    • In Our Time: Melvyn Bragg discusses Aristotle's Politics with Angie Hobbs, Paul Cartledge (Cambridge) and Annabel Brett (Cambridge).
    • PEL: on Aristotle's Nichomachean Ethics and the nature of virtue.
    • PEL: on Aristotle's Politics and the best form of government.
  • Less seriously. S Peter Davis gives his ribald 3-minute take on Aristotle in the following clip:

Epicurus (341–270 BCE)

  • Open access translations of major Epicurean works include:
  • Encyclopaedia entries:
  • Podcasts:
    • Peter Adamson: Five podcasts dealing with elements of Epicureanism.
    • Philosopher's Zone: John Penwill (La Trobe) discusses Epicurus's life and philosophy.
    • In Our Time: Melvyn Bragg discusses Epicureanism with Angie Hobbs (Sheffield), David Sedley (Cambridge) and James Warren (Cambridge).
  • Useful sites and resources:
    • The introduction to The Epicurus Reader, written by D.S. Hutchinson (University of Toronto), is here.
    • M.F. Smith's introduction to Lucretius: On the Nature of Things is here. (It includes a long section on Epicurus and Epicureanism.)
    • Epicurus.info
    • Epicurus.net
    • NewEpicurean.com
  • Alain de Botton introduces Epicurus' theory about the essence of a happy life in the following episode from his documentary series, "Philosophy: A Guide to Happiness". It includes a clip on the The Epicurean Inscription erected by Diogenes of Oinoanda:
  • Less seriously. S Peter Davis gives his 3-minute take on the contrast between Epicureanism and Stoicism in the following clip:

The Stoics

  • Open access translations of major Stoic works include:
    • The Discourses (Epictetus): here.
    • The Enchiridion (Epictetus): here.
    • Lectures and Fragments (Musonius Rufus): here.
    • Meditations (Marcus Aurelius): here.
  • Encyclopaedia entries:
    • Stoicism: SEP and IEP
    • Epictetus: SEP and IEP
    • Marcus Aurelius: IEP
    • Seneca: SEP
    • Stoic Ethics: SEP and IEP
    • Stoic Philosophy of Mind: IEP
    • Intentionality in Ancient Philosophy / Stoics: SEP
    • Ancient Theories of Soul / Stoics: SEP
    • Ancient Logic / Stoics: SEP
    • Hellenistic Astrology / Stoic Cosmic Determinism: IEP
  • Podcasts:
    • Peter Adamson: nine podcasts on Stoicism.
    • In Our Time: Melvyn Bragg discusses the Stoics with Angie Hobbs (Warwick), Jonathan Rée, and David Sedley (Cambridge).
  • Useful sites and links:
    • TheStoicLife.org: lots of stoic resources.
    • A Guide to Stoicism (1908) by St. George William Joseph Stock is a brief primer on stoicism, an open access version of which is here
  • In the following three videos, Philip Hansten (University of Washington) introduces stoicism:

Saint Augustine (354–430)

  • Open access translations of Augustine's works include:
  • Encyclopaedia entries:
  • Podcasts:
  • Useful sites:
  • Janet Soskice (Cambridge) introduces Augustine in the following pair of videos from the "Video Timeline" project of Saint John's College, Nottingham.

Saint Anselm (1033–1109)

  • Open access translations of Anselm's works include:
  • Encyclopaedia entries:
  • The first of the following pair of videos summarises Anselm's ontological argument for the existence of God, as laid out in his Proslogion. The second considers possible rejoinders to Anselm's argument.

Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274)

  • Thomism is the modern version of Aquinas’s philosophy.
  • Encyclopaedia entries:
    • Aquinas: SEP, IEP & Catholic
    • Aquinas' Metaphysics: IEP
    • Aquinas' Moral Philosophy: IEP
    • Aquinas' Moral, Political, and Legal Philosophy: SEP
    • Aquinas' Philosophical Theology: IEP
    • Aquinas' Political Philosophy: IEP
  • Podcasts:
    • In Our Time: Melvyn Bragg discusses the life, works and enduring influence of the medieval philosopher and theologian St Thomas Aquinas with Martin Palmer, John Haldane (St Andrews) and Annabel Brett (Cambridge).
  • Useful sites:
  • Franklin T. Harkins (Durham) introduces Aquinas in the following video from the "Video Timeline" project of Saint John's College, Nottingham.